Care and Feeding of Fiddles

Your violin (viola, cello, bass), carefully made with special woods and tools by skilled craftspeople, needs special care to keep it in good playing condition. Given proper treatment, violin family instruments should outlive their owners. Indeed, instruments from the 18th Century are still played on a regular basis. However, owners must guard against hazards. Always remember that others need to use these instruments after we are done with them.


Instrument Quality

      Seek properly made instruments from a reliable source. These have good setup so you will avoid problems with tuning, playing, and sound. Instruments require regular maintenance, so choose a local shop that you are comfortable with. Avoid internet items which cannot be checked prior to purchase, often are poorly adjusted, are difficult or impossible to return, and have poor resale value. Read more here.

      The single best thing you can do to get the best sound from your instrument is to use good strings.The next thing is to have a good bow.Of course, the services of a skilled teacher are required to get the most out of your music making.

      Not all instruments can, or should be, made playable.Some are simply too low quality to ever please a player.We can help you make this judgment if you own an older instrument that you are unsure of.


Instrument Size

      Violin and viola are sized according to arm length, not age or height.So it is important to start with getting a reliable measurement with the help of a professional shop or teacher.It is best to play the smaller size if there is any question about being on the boundary between two sizes.

      Look for a shop that will accept trade-ins when the time comes to move up to the next size, or to better quality as you become a more advanced player.


Handle with Care!

      Preserve the appearance of the fragile softwood top because it has a lot to do with an instrumentís value.It must be guarded from scratches, dents, and heavy rosin buildup.

      Instruments and bows are delicate and must not be handled roughly or dropped.

      Avoid placing an instrument or bow on a chair or leaning it against something.†† Do not temporarily lay a tensioned bow on a music stand rack because it will easily fall and the bowís head will break off.The safest places are cases and instrument stands.

      Handle an instrument by the neck and chinrest areas rather than by the fragile scroll, and avoid touching varnished surfaces with fingers. This will help to prevent fingerprints on the varnish, as well as cracks caused by too much finger pressure, especially near the fragile ff-hole wings.

      Do not let non-musicians or unsupervised children play your violin. Untrained hands might easily drop the violin or bow.


Everyday Use

      Where possible, keep instruments in the open. Place them on an instrument stand, table, wall rack, or piano, or keep in an open case. Make them easily available for playing!However, keep them away from direct sunlight, air vents, and heat ducts.

      Remember that cases are mainly for transporting instruments, rather than long-term storage. Instruments left in cases for long periods are subjected to mold growth, metal tarnish, and other problems related to high humidity and lack of air circulation.††

      Please do not affix adhesive strips, decals, or moleskin-type products to varnished surfaces.Removing them often strips off the varnish.


Transportation and Storage Hints

      Invest in a well-padded case that fits your instrument properly.Older cases provide poor protection and in some cases cause damage.

      Use a blanket in a violin/viola case to protect the top of the instrument from sharp metal edges on the bow's frog.Avoid storing loose shoulder rests, spare strings, or other items touching the instrument, as this may cause damage.

      Avoid leaving instruments in cars, because they can easily get too cold or hot, or be stolen by breaking a window.

      Store violins in living quarters, not in the attic, basement, or garage.

      For long-term storage, loosen fingerpegs slightly (1/2 to one turn), retaining enough force to hold the bridge and soundpost firmly in place.

      Store bows in open air, because beetles may feed on bow hair in closed cases.

String Things

      Change strings every six months for daily players, or yearly for occasional players.Change them if they show much tarnish or dirt buildup.

      Change strings one at a time, to avoid upsetting the bridge and soundpost.

      New strings always stretch and may need an hour or two of "playing-in" time before they will hold their tune.

      Violin, viola, or cello strings should rarely break. If your string breaks repeatedly, it means that the string is being tuned too high or else a sharp edge or friction spot needs to be corrected somewhere on the tuning pegs, nut, bridge, or fine tuner.

      The type of strings used on your instrument may affect the instrument's health as well as tone. Inexpensive steel-core strings exert high tension whereas synthetic (perlon-core) strings are low tension.I think steel core strings are a main cause for warped and broken bridges, open seams, cracks, and sunken necks. Older instruments were designed for gut strings and are often damaged by the use of high-tension steel strings. Many people think perlon-core (Dominant, Pro Arte, or equivalent) strings have a warmer and deeper sound than steel-core strings, besides causing less damage and being easier to tune.


Cleaning and Polish

      A good rule is to "clean often, polish little,Ē and leave difficult cleaning jobs and polishing to the violin shop.Avoid getting rosin or fingerprints on varnished surfaces; lift the instrument by neck or base.

      Rosin is your fiddle's enemy because it sticks to the strings, fingerboard, and varnish, where it deadens tone and eventually turns gummy and black.Keep a soft cotton flannel or microfiber cloth in the case for gently cleaning rosin from the violin and bow stick after playing. If you need to remove rosin or dirt build-up from the instrumentís top surface, use only water on a soft cloth.

      Avoid oil- or alcohol-based polishes that enter cracks and seams and make future repairs difficult. Milky white wax-type violin polishes are preferred, although even these can build up into a gummy coating that is opaque and difficult to remove.Never apply any product, including furniture polish, that was not formulated for polishing violins. Always clean before applying polish or the polish will just sit on top of dirt.

Temperature and Humidity Troubles

      Most cracks and open seams are caused by dryness or large changes in temperature.A good rule to prevent damage is to treat a musical instrument like you would a living thing like a plant, a pet, or a child.

      Ideally, instruments should be kept at room temperature at 55% humidity.

      Invest in a digital humidity gauge (hygrometer) so you know when a dryness problem exists (most dial-type hygrometers are inaccurate).

      If room humidity falls below 35% (the greatest danger is in winter), there is a risk of the wood shrinking, causing cracks and open seams.Either protect the instrument from drying by putting it in a plastic bag, or take steps to introduce moisture.Case humidifiers or room humidifiers are preferred to ďdampitĒ tubes, which leak water and cause mold and other damage inside the instrument.

Bow Tips

      Tighten the bow stick enough so that the stick does not scrape along the metal string or else bow hairs will break, pinched between wood and metal.Do not overtighten, as it risks damage or breakage and does not help sound.

      Avoid using too much rosin. You donít need to apply it every time you play.Too much rosin causes a harsh sound and just falls off creating a cleaning problem.

      Bow hair needs to be replaced if it becomes old, dirty, or worn, does not hold rosin, does not produce a strong tone easily, or no longer fills the full width at the silver part of the frog. Bows used every day should be rehaired every six months, or yearly for bows used less often.

      Avoid touching bow hair because skin oil prevents rosin from adhering to the hair.

      Always loosen bow hair when finished playing or the hair might warp or break the stick, especially if heat or dryness causes the hair to shorten.

      Cut off broken hairs with a blade rather than yanking hairs out of the bow with your hand.Fewer strands in the knot will cause the knot to loosen, releasing all the hair.

      Donít let a carbon fiber bow get hot (in a closed car on a hot sunny day).The stick will soften, change shape, and be ruined.

      Avoid dropping the bow when it is tightened, or the tip and (or) head may break off!Where possible, play above carpeted floors rather than hard flooring.

      Replace a cracked bone tip because it provides protection for the bow head.

Bridge Matters

      Align the feet of the bridge with the inner notches cut in the ff-holes.

      Your bridge should appear to tilt slightly towards the tailpiece. However, as strings are tightened during tuning, the bridge may need to be pulled back because it is pulled slightly forward to a position where it may warp or fall.After tuning, and especially after changing strings, check the bridge position to maintain a slight backwards tilt. The bridge feet should stand flat on the top, without gaps.

      Lubricating string notches with pencil graphite helps the strings to slide over the wood, reducing problems with bridge position.

      If the bridge has a parchment protecting the smallest string notch, you can remove the small tube that comes with new strings.


      Seek out properly made instruments with professional setup from a real violin shop. This, more than anything else, will reduce problems with repairs and adjustments.

      Allow only trained, seasoned, skilled repair people to handle your instrument's needs.This means professional violin shops, not general music stores.

      It is a good idea to get a check up once per year to check adjustment and help to small problems from becoming worse with time.Instruments should be checked for cracks or open seams, and tuning pegs and fine tuner screws need frequent lubrication.

      Always listen for buzzes and rattles while playing and have them corrected.

      If the soundpost or bridge falls down, the fingerboard has come loose, or a crack or open seam is found, always loosen the strings immediately and insert paper towels under the tailpiece so fine tuner arms do not scratch the soft spruce top.

      Cracks and other damage are easier to repair if they are found early, and if all pieces are preserved.If an instrument or bow breaks, do not allow anyone to apply household adhesives to cracks (it is unlikely to help, and it makes the problem more difficult and costly to repair properly).Please collect all pieces, including tiny slivers, and take them to repair shop.